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Indigenous Resources

We created this guide to help St. Clair College students who are researching or interested in learning more about Indigenous peoples in Canada.

What is a treaty?

“Treaties are agreements made between the Government of Canada, Indigenous groups and often provinces and territories that define ongoing rights and obligations on all sides. These agreements set out continuing treaty rights and benefits for each group” (From Government of Canada, 2020).

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Treaties with Canada

This collection of resources provides information about the treaties and land agreements that make up Canada. 

This article by the team at Cambium Indigenous Professional Services (CIPS) dispels common misconceptions about Indigenous communities, such as living exclusively on reserves, being exempt from taxes, and receiving free post-secondary education. It provides factual information to correct these myths and highlights the diversity and varied experiences of Indigenous peoples across Canada.

This article by Indigenous Corporate Training Inc. debunks 10 common misconceptions about Indigenous peoples in Canada. It provides accurate information to replace these myths and promote better understanding.

This resource discusses the treaty history of Canada between Indigenous peoples and the Crown “since the 18th century have permitted the evolution of Canada as we know it” -Government of Canada: CIRNAC

CIRNAC resource that contains illustrated maps of treaties of Canada from the last 300 years of Canadian history, with the focus of the treaties negotiated between 1725 and 1923.

This comprehensive resource, a partnership between Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs (AMC) and Canada, provides information about the treaties of Canada, discussing the history and relationships between the parties involved with the creation of the treaties.

Library and Archives Canada database that provides access to an extensive collection of historic documents of Canadian Indian treaties, land surrenders, and agreements.

• “Learn about historic and modern treaties in Canada, treaty rights and the treaty relationship” – Government of Canada: Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada (CIRNAC) Department

This CBC article by Isabelle Montpetit discusses the history of the treaties signed between the Indigenous peoples of Canada and the Crown between 1725 and 1923, looking what both sides received from these deals.

“Everything you wanted to know about treaties but were afraid to ask. Not really... but here is brief explainer about treaties, we like to call Treaty 101” - CBC Radio: Unreserved short 2.5-minute video that explains treaties of Canada.

This Canadian Encyclopedia article by Anthony J. Hill provides a detailed historical overview of the treaties that exist between Indigenous peoples and the Crown that shaped Canada into a nation.

“Read historical interpretations of treaties the Crown has signed with Aboriginal peoples since the 18th century” - Government of Canada: CIRNAC

Read the full text historical treaties of Canada from the mid 1700s to 1900s – Government of Canada: CIRNAC.

Links to copies of the historic treaties between the Indigenous peoples of Canada and the Crown made public through Library and Archives of Canada.

Archived articles about the Indian Act on the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network.

Written by TVO Current Affairs-- "The following is excerpted from "Canada’s Colonial Constitution," an essay by John Borrows, published in The Right Relationship: Reimagining the Implementation of Historical Treaties. The book, from University of Toronto press, comprises scholarly essays on the history of First Nations treaties with Canada and on the challenges they present today" (TVO Today, 2017, para. 1).

Treaties in Ontario

Ontario Treaties

There are more than 40 treaties and land agreements between Indigenous groups and the Ontario government at all levels. This list provides links to maps and information about the treaties that make up Ontario.

Treaties of Windsor-Essex and Chatham-Kent

There are two treaties that cover the southern most counties in Ontario:

Maamwi Treaties of Ontario Database (The Learning Portal)

Discover what treaty your campus is located on and empower yourself by clicking on “more…” to read the related treaty resources for your campus location -- The Learning Portal

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